From the program notes of Pien, composed in 1966.
Pien, meaning transformation, is synonymous with the i of I Ching. In philosophy, i evolves from simplicity to complexity, complexity to phenomena, phenomena to its conglomeration and dispersion, and finally invariability.
|Vibrato in slow speed and wide amplitude.|
|Lower the pitch evenly throughout the duration to the semitone below by lipping.|
|Bend the pitch evenly to the semitone above or below by sliding (trombone) or rolling (flute), and return to original pitch evenly throughout the indicated duration.|
|Slow trill on the given note alternating with the harmonic (slightly lower in pitch) on the same note (flute).|
|Grace note or notes to be attacked an the beginning of the given note value.|
|Grace note to be played at the end of the given note value.|
|All note values are only qualitative indications without exact proportional durations; however, the total duration should be as indicated by the measure or rests.
The note values in a bracket should contrast sharply with each other: the quarter very long, the thirty-second extremely short.
|Grace notes to be attacked as soon as possible after the measured note.|
The following metronome marks (given primarily as a reference) represent the four steps (or six sets of two) in the temporal fluctuation:
|104||tense — as fast as possible but with clarity|
|96||driving — but not tense|
|88||deliberate — but not relaxed|
|80||relaxed — but not dragging|
All other metronome marks are metric derivatives of the above.